Wednesday, December 15, 2010


On December 15, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits India for the second time after the gap of five years. A strong delegation consisting of about 300 business groups accompany him during this much publicized three days visit to India. After visiting India, Chinese Premier will fly straight to Pakistan, all seasoned companion of China, which also raise an aura of concerns for India. Prior to Wen Jiabao's visit to India, the Chinese foreign ministry expressed hope for an agreement on 'a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement through frank dialogue and consultation on an equal footing' with regarding to border disputes. However, this year marks the 60th anniversary of Sino-indian diplomatic exchange, China implies to look forward for a friendly cooperation and regarded India as a cooperative parters rather than competing rivals.1

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

I Have No Enemies: My Final Statement

Liu Xiaobo

Translation by HRIC, based on a translation by J. Latourelle

December 23, 2009

In the course of my life, for more than half a century, June 1989 was the major turning point. Up to that point, I was a member of the first class to enter university when college entrance examinations were reinstated following the Cultural Revolution (Class of ’77). From BA to MA and on to PhD, my academic career was all smooth sailing. Upon receiving my degrees, I stayed on to teach at Beijing Normal University. As a teacher, I was well received by the students. At the same time, I was a public intellectual, writing articles and books that created quite a stir during the 1980s, frequently receiving invitations to give talks around the country, and going abroad as a visiting scholar upon invitation from Europe and America. What I demanded of myself was this: whether as a person or as a writer, I would lead a life of honesty, responsibility, and dignity. After that, because I had returned from the U.S. to take part in the 1989 Movement, I was thrown into prison for “the crime of counter-revolutionary propaganda and incitement.” I also lost my beloved lectern and could no longer publish essays or give talks in China. Merely for publishing different political views and taking part in a peaceful democracy movement, a teacher lost his lectern, a writer lost his right to publish, and a public intellectual lost the opportunity to give talks publicly. This is a tragedy, both for me personally and for a China that has already seen thirty years of Reform and Opening Up.

Monday, December 13, 2010

Are we Ready yet???

We are Tibetans, the unfortunate one who happen to lost its nation due to the ignorance and self centered attitude of elite class. But looking from the Buddhist point of view it can be said as a result of collective demerits of Tibetans. Whatever the cause may be we all suffered and common people suffer the worst even though they did not have a word say in framing of policies that made them to suffer. There are different school of thoughts and each one has different interpretation of how? what? who? and why Tibet lost its independence. Let the History speak of these..

In exile, Tibetan diaspora permeated like flowing rivers into different parts of India, Nepal & Bhutan to seek livelihood. The determination and perseverance of generation at that time though illiterate was able to keep the spirit alive and flowing. The sense of urgency was very much there. And it is that sense of urgency that pulls the energy of Tibetan diaspora into one common factor called "Restoration of Rangzen".

Thursday, December 9, 2010


"It is important for India to keep the hopes of the Tibetan youth alive." -B. Raman, Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi

This morning I read an article 'The Internal Political Situation in China' (06 December 2010, written by B. Raman, a noted Sinologist based in Chennai. The last paragraph of the article caught me as it concludes in saying that India needs to keep the hopes of young Tibetans alive by showing stronger association with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. He concluded that if India distant herself from Tibet, it will be a lost to India in the future, taking into consideration of China's dominance in Tibet.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010


An information published on a Chinese government website towards the end of September 2010 makes it obvious that the authorities in Beijing are encouraging their overseas agents to infiltrate the Tibetan communities abroad to undermine the unity and strength of the Tibetans. Attached here is the screen shot of the web page.

The document states that working within the Tibetans abroad is an important part of the government's struggle against the Dalai clique and therefore, it is important to strive hard to pull the hearts and minds of the Tibetans abroad towards the Motherland and undermine the very foundation of the Dalai clique. To fulfill this, the document suggests that it is imperative to adopt principles -- different strategies, exploit animosity or conflict within the community, and divide and fracture the community. The document highlights the following specific activities:

Monday, November 22, 2010


By Gabriel Lafitte, 22 Nov 2010


China's greatest fear is that modernity is skin deep, and is easily lost. The gleaming modernity of the glass towers is just a skin, covering what lies behind: a vast sea of seething irrationality, superstition, ignorance and mutual obligation; which modern China left behind only yesterday, which could reassert itself at any time. Modern China fears that its grip on modernity, and on the hearts of the masses who are yet to benefit much from modernity, is fragile, and could easily be shaken.

Saturday, November 13, 2010


'I extend my support and solidarity with the recent peaceful movement for democracy in Burma....and the early release of fellow Nobel Peace laureate Aung San Suu Kyi.'- His Holiness the Dalai Lama, 23 September 2007

Myanmar juntas today made final arrangement for the release of the most prominent Burmese Democratic leader and the Nobel Peace Laureate Madame Aung San Suu Kyi from her lakeside villa prison. After prolong hiatus, people of Myanmar applauded with rejoice and triumph of hearing the news of her release, which clearly shows the unfathomable desire for freedom and democracy in Myanmar.

Myanmar for the last couple of decades was blended with trauma under the bloody realm of Military Juntas which makes headline every other day. Rangoon, despite being a member of United Nations plainly nullifies the international principles on human rights and carries out her own rigid control over its people, which is deeply a cause of concern for the United Nations. Myanmar paid no heed to the repeated calls and sanctions imposed by the International communities as it was silently supported by People's Republic of China (PRC).

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Politics of the Prize

Palden Gyal

When the Nobel Committee declared that the Nobel Peace Prize 2010 to be awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China", it sent a wave of exhilaration across the globe in recognition of the Committee's decision, somewhat curing the injury of disparagement and vilification to the group for conferring it to Barrack Obama last year. The Committee in its run often known for some controversial picks from Henry Kissinger to Yasser Arafat and Barrack Obama while leaving out deserving candidates such as M.K. Gandhi and Ken Saro-Wiwa. However, this time it came as a hard slap on the face of Chinese Government and its immediate response was the suspension of the upcoming Shanghai Meeting with a Norwegian Minister in vengeance of awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu Xiaobo. Earlier Beijing warned Olso that awarding the prize to the imprisoned dissent would have serious consequences to their bilateral relation as a longstanding trade partners (Norway is Europe's biggest exporter of oil and gas). As an independent organization, the Nobel Committee has no reason to be daunted by such warnings or care for any diplomatic relations of the two countries.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010


Tenzin Lekshay

The 60 years old Chinese Communist Party rule over China is interestingly getting more trouble within. Once again, the history is going reverse as we are witnessing the plight of Chinese people coming on the front page. Once again, I fear of many more Chinese toiling to suffer with the emergence of their plea for freedom, which the Chinese Government will crack and crush them. But, I hope it won't happen this time.

Lets go back to the Chinese history briefly. In the early years, irrespective of disastrous failure of Great Leap Forward and Great Proleterian Cultural Revolution during Mao Tsetung, China remained forcibly silent under the Shadow of their horrendous leaders. Millions were killed, tortured and humiliated, which is still hidden under the surface of their history. Mao Tsetung, during his reign, once called upon people to exercise their freedom of expression, under the campaign 'let a hundred flowers blossom'. In February 1957, Mao declared, "Letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend is the policy for promoting progress in the arts and the sciences and a flourishing socialist culture in our land." But, what happened thereafter was exactly opposite to the much hyped campaign, which shocked the whole nation. Even Deng Xiaoping was subjected to house arrest and was exiled to rural Jiangxi by labelling him as 'Capitalist Roader'.

Saturday, October 9, 2010


Tenzin Lekshay

Norwegian Nobel Committee declared Liu Xiaopo, jailed campaigner of Human rights in China, a well deserving treat with 2010 Nobel Peace Prize. The President of Norwegian Nobel Committee, Mr. Thorbjoern Jagland in his announcement honored Liu Xiaopo for 'his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China'.1 Millions of people all over the world applauded with joy of the decision made by the Nobel Committee, which somehow enraged the Chinese government.

This is the first time in the history of Nobel Foundation that the Chinese dissident was honored with such a high profile Peace Prize, though China was deeply afflicted with a centralized command of horrific repression on universal freedom for many decades.

It is certainly a glorious moment for not only Liu Xiaobo, but for all those who are behind the iron curtain sacrificing their lifes for the sake of human rights, democracy and freedom in China. Since the inception of Chinese Communist regime, millions of people died, imprisoned and tortured simply because they rouse for freedom and still many are following their footsteps. Chinese government considered them as the threat for the survival of the regime. Even though Chinese government proclaim themselve as people's government, the sentiments and the aspiration of the people are crushed to ashes continously for over six decades.

Sunday, September 5, 2010


Tenzin Lekshay

"Future Tibet will be a peace-loving nation, adhering to the principle of Ahimsa. It will have a democratic system of government committed to preserving a clean, healthy and beautiful environment. Tibet will be a completely demilitarized nation."-His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Guidelines for Future Tibet polity, 26 February 1992

Tibet has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years, ruled by great kings of Tibet. It was one amongst the old nations where the realms of Tibetan kings spread across nations ranging from Central Asia to China in the east. Tibet at one point of history was considered a great warrior nation but just like any other great nation, it later went through a stage of disintegration. The golden age of Tibet brought many reforms inside Tibet, with an introduction of Buddhism as a state religion, creation of Tibetan language, astrology, medicine, arts and music. During the reign of King Songsten Gampo in 7th century, Tibet was literally guarded by four regiments 'Ru bshi' from four directions. Even today, it is believed that a cluster of people belonging to one of those groups still exist in Central China. The clan of warriors, who was posted in the Far East were instructed by the king not to return to their native without king's command. Waiting for the king's command, centuries passed and those obedient troops stayed back and established their own clan, which is known as 'bkha ma lok'. Even in Nepal, people of Tamang ethnic group, once considered a horse warriors of Tibet, faced a similar fate and never returned to their native.


Tenzin Lekshay

Last month, Sino-Indian relation was swamped by many hair raising episodes, which placed India on high alert with the much pugnacious actions of China over the borders, and diplomatic provocations including its denial of Visa to Lt. General B.S. Jaswal. Over the five decades, Sino-Indian relations sailed through rough edges despite Pandit Nehru's sweat toils in engaging with China. It is of no doubt that some historical developments over the years had dictated the bitter relationship between these two Asian Giants. The Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1959 was the orifice of contemporary Sino-Indian relations, which for the first time in the history of India, brought China to a close neighbourhood, and caused Sino-Indian War of 1962. It became a precedent of a real politic of shrouded competition and 'Frienemy' between India and China. China, unambiguously ventures to expand farthest of its territorial and maritime capturing Tibet, East Turkestan, Mongolia and Manchuria in the north and west. Integration of such a gigantic landmasses widely opens a door of interference to the Central and South West Asia.

The gluelike all weathered Pakistan-China ally, continual incursions over the borders, militarization and rapid developmental plans inside Tibet, and diplomatic animus make India vulnerable to the core of its security and sovereignty. The problems of Tawang, Kashmir and other disputed areas along the Himalayan ranges arises somehow due to China's invasion of Tibet and since then become a contentious issue in frequent terms, irrespective of continual economic and diplomatic engagements.

Thursday, August 12, 2010


by Tenzin Lekshay, 12 August 2010

On 08 August, a disastrous landslide triggered by rain in Drugchu Dzong, (Zhougu) near Lhabrang Tashi Kyil of Amdo's Kanlho Tibet Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province killed more than a thousand with plus 600 missing beneath the rubbles and solid muds. Chinese President Hu Jintao and premier Wen Jiabao visited the spot to condole and inspect the disaster swamped by this killer landslide. Even the exile Tibetan Government based in Dharamshala sent their condolences and grievances to the bereaved surviving members and had hold a special prayer sessions for the departed souls.

Everyday, we get some updates about the death tolls and the casualties but we did not really look at the causes of this deadly landslide. Neither we know whether such kind of landslides will occur in the future. It is critical to understand the hidden reality of what is exactly happening inside Tibet, since more and more of calamities and disasters happen incessantly one after another. When the wounds of recent Kyegudo earthquake heals silently, Tibet was shocked by yet another debacle.

To get a clear picture of this landslide, we need to dwell into its cause and effect; i.e. its historical and geographical background, and the governmental policies and roles. Otherwise, with no knowledge of what is happening in Tibet, we might cry and accuse mother nature for causing a collosal damages inside Tibet.

Background of Drugchu Dzong:

Drugchu Dzong in Kanlho Tibet Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province is the eastern tip of Tibetan county in China, located at 104.5 degree E longitude. it is elivated at the height of 2,500-3,500 meters, covering over 2,983 square kilometers. Chinese political administrative boundaries recognized it as within a Tibetan periphery when they created the boundaries in 1949. But historically, Tibetan settlements extend further north beyond Minzian and south towards Wenxian until the end of Mongol era. Drugchu Dzong is demarcated by Minshan range in the south along the Sino-Tibetan borders, and upper Min river watershed in the east. Earlier in 1954, Drugchu was carved out of Dangchang, Min and Wudu counties as Zhouqu County, which is named after the Tibetan name of Bailong River that flows in the middle of Drugchu county town.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010


by Tenzin Lekshay, 11 August 2010

Since the inception of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the Communist Party of China (CCP), the self proclaimed helm and the savior of millions of proletarian and the campesino has drastically switched their formulae from socialism to Capitalism. But the core program of the CCP still remains vibrant in a multi faced approaches of expanding the Middle Kingdom which not only focus on capturing or claiming territorial rights, but also pushing forward dumping its large Chinese population else where in the world. I shall focus on the second issue that deals with the Migration of Chinese populace, both internally as well as externally spreading all over the world.

My hypothesis on Chinese migration is based on 'push n pull' factors of Migrational theory which in Chinese case is simply both formulated or unformulated factors which concerns with the governmental policy. The overwhelming shift in the demographic composition within China and other countries with the preempt flows of Chinese emigrants has both win and lose implication in China.

Even before the rise of CCP, the Nationalist Government of China under the rule of Kuomintang went on charting for the reunification of China. The situation then was troublesome with the clusters of events occurred in China, i.e Japanese attacks, civil wars with the Communist and the foreign imperialists' exploitations and intrusions.

The concept of Middle Kingdom "zhōngguó" originated during the reign of Zhou dynasty (1045-256 BC) was later misinterpreted with the political overtone of carrying out the expansionistic drive along the far end neighbours. PRC earlier claimed in their initial white paper on Tibet that Tibet was part of China since 7th Century, which infact was not historically true. The concept of Middle kingdom varied over the ages as the Great wall of China, a fortress built and maintained since 5 BC to protect the Chinese empire in the northern border is currently located in the middle of China, which in one end of the mighty gate is located within proximity of Tibet's border in northeast.

During the early years of CCP rule, in the name of 'liberation', around 40,000 PLA troops launched their attack at the eastern ghat of Tibet in Chamdo and defeated the meager Tibetan troops after a round of 21 battles till 19 October 1950.

Monday, August 9, 2010

Tenzin Nyinjey: A letter to the Editors of Tibetan political review, after reading Reflections on Tethong/Sangay Debate

While I appreciate the editorial critiquing and analyzing the 'traditional' and 'modern' approaches of the two potential Kalon Tripa candidates, Tenzin Namgyal Tethong and Lobsang Sangay, towards securing power and serving our people, I felt somehow the editors are biased against Lobsang Sangay. I feel the members of the editorial board 'misinterpreted' or 'misunderstood' Sangay when he invoked great leaders like Songtsen Gampo, Alexander, Abraham Lincoln and others, to support his argument that 'experience' is not the key to run for the highest political position.

Experience in this context, according to Lobsang Sangay, means one doesn't necessarily needs to have an experience of serving for a long time in a bureaucratic organization, in the Tibetan civil service; it no way means one doesn't need any experience concerning the Tibetan freedom struggle and the Tibetan movement as a whole.

Of course Lobsang Sangay has never served as a member of Parliament, unlike Obama and others, who were senators or lawmakers before going on to assume the highest political office, but he did serve on the Central Executive Committee of the Tibetan Youth Congress, which ideally and principally and practically fights for Tibetan independence, and which serves as a de facto opposition party in the exile Tibetan society. And that is enough experience to assume the highest political office of the Tibetan government in exile. In other words, in our society, experience as MP (Chitue) is not a prerequisite to run for the Kalon Tripa post.

Knowledge or shes yon (pronounced and spelled yon not yun) indeed is the key; one needs to know, understand and realize the Tibetan freedom struggle as a whole, our current difficult situation, our existential struggle against the Chinese, and I think Sangay knows it quite well, not because he has a doctorate from Harvard, but because he reads and quotes the works of luminaries like Vaclav Havel, Gandhi, Mandela and His Holiness the Dalai Lama. And moreover, education gives you pride, confidence and skills necessary to secure one's goals. Alas most of our Chitues don't read books, apart from newspapers like Dusbab, Bangchen and Sheja.

And I agree with the editors that a common man might think he's arrogant when he invoked all these great leaders, but that's not what he implies. What he implies and thus needs to be stressed by the editorial board, which you have failed to do so, is that by referring to these leaders Sangay is just enunciating all the qualities a leader requires to lead his people towards freedom and independence: charisma, knowledge, inspiration, values, courage and so on!

And that's what Tibetans, not just the leaders, but every Tashi, Dolma and Tenzin, every 'ordinary' Tibetan needs if we are to regain our independence: inspiration, knowledge, values, courage etc.

I agree at times due to his relatively young age, due to his 'inexperience', Lobsang Sangay does crosses his line and thus appears naive, condescending, and even arrogant, as for instance when differentiating the category of leaders and administrators, he said: a leader doesn't need the experience of a manager or administrator, such as keeping the records of pens and [files]. Lobsang Sangay must know that a manager or a higher Tibetan civil servant plays a much bigger and more important role than storing books and pencils. Having said this, I think Lobsang Sangay is smart and open enough to learn from such mistakes, such show of naivety, if we care to point them out sincerely and openly.

With best wishes,

Yours sincerely

Tenzin Nyinjey
New York

Friday, July 23, 2010

The Joy of Finding one's Roots in a Foreign Country

A year ago I went to meet the eminent Tibet historian Prof. Eliot Sperling, who teaches at the Indiana University in US, at a coffee shop in the streets of McleodGanj, Dharamsala. The meeting took place just a few days before I was to leave for the US to study English literature. During our conversation, I sought his views about my passion to study English literature in the US and whether I would find good professors who could teach me well enough, so that my goals to write well in English would one day bear fruit. His instant reaction was not very encouraging at the time – he advised me to read the Tibetan classics before plunging myself into the sea of English literature.

I found him a bit discouraging and annoying then. However, I didn’t realize that he was simply saying in his own way what His Holiness has been advising us to do for so many years –that along with modern education learn also the traditional education of Tibet, which is possible only through Tibetan language!

Being born and brought up in India, once a colony of Great Britain, English language has never been a problem for refugee Tibetan students like us. We have been used to speaking, reading and, at times, writing in English – in fact all our communication with our friends in far away corners of the world are done in English through emails. We are also used to watching American soap operas, movies, reality shows. However, it is an altogether a different experience living suddenly in the same country that produced all these entertainment shows. No matter how well versed you are in English language, speaking it with Americans in America is quite a challenging task for any one.

Apart from the minor problems a non-native English speaker faces while communicating in English, which can be dealt with easily as time progresses and one gains more exposure, the most severe and life changing crisis one faces is that you never feel at home speaking English in the US – you always miss your own language, which you can’t speak with any of the American people.

But like the Newtonian law, every crisis brings with it an equal opportunity, and the identity crisis of the sort that I went through in the US brought the greatest and the most enriching opportunity in my life – the realization of the fact that until and unless one is rooted deeply in one’s own culture and history, one is never going to gain the kind of self-confidence needed to achieve any goals in this life.

With this realization, I decided to visit Dharamsala during this summer break, so that I could spend some valuable time at the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, reading Tibetan history and culture. Of course, when I was working in Dharamsala, I often visited the Library and borrowed books on Tibet, but all these books were in English and hence authored by western scholars of Tibet. All these efforts have been very helpful to me, as they have given me a rare understanding and insight of our history and culture.

Despite all these efforts, I have never cared to pick up a Tibetan classic and read it. I do know many classical authors from the West, but when it comes to our own writers, there is hardly any one whose work I am familiar with and whom I can recommend to my fellow Tibetan readers. Except, perhaps, for Gendun Choephel, there is hardly any one whose work I read and gained insight from!

I have always found exiled Tibetans (this includes myself) – especially intellectuals, be it a writer, poet, essayist, activist - searching for his or her identity. Their works might be brilliant, they might ever have found some recognition in our community, but I have always found something missing in them. I haven’t seen the joy and self-confidence that sparkles in the eyes of intellectuals from other free countries.

The root of this problem to me lies in the fact that we are not strongly rooted in our own culture and history – we never showed enough respect to our own history and culture, never cared to read the huge amount of Tibetan literature available in our midst. Without a solid foundation in our own history and culture, how could we expect to make a contribution to global culture and claim that Tibetan culture is worth preserving in the 21st century?

If we really care about our own country, if we wish to regain our freedom, the first basic step is for us to learn Tibetan well, and read the Tibetan authors, so that the real Tibetan in us is reawakened! Or else I believe we lose our moral right to condemn the Chinese of destroying our rich culture and identity back in our homeland Tibet!

Saturday, June 19, 2010


A group of leading experts on Wednesday deliberated on the crucial issues of water and climate change at a panel discussion organised jointly by Navdanya and Core Group for Tibetan Cause in New Delhi, the India Tibet Coordination Office based in the capital reported.

The panelists for the discussion were Dr Vandana Shiva, founder-director of Navdanya, Dr. Ramaswamy Iyer, former Secretary of Water Resources, Government of India, Mr B G Verghese, prominent senior journalist and a honourary professor of Centre for Policy Research, who was a recipient of Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Mr Vijay Kranti, Journalist and Tibet expert, and Mr Tenzin Norbu, executive head of Environment and Development Desk of Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala.

Dr Vandaya Shiva raised the issue of water crisis in India and the disappearing ground water in Punjab, and the melting of glaciers in northern belt of India like Zanskar range.

Dr Ramaswamy Iyer discussed about the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on climate change and later claimed that water crisis is created by us (human), referring to ‘greed vs. need.’

Mr B G Verghese, however, dealt more on dam constructions in China and he sensed less worried about the consequences of the China’s damming, as he suggested more concrete and common initiatives between India and China. He surfaced the reality of India’s expertise on water by saying that India did not have advance resources like climatologists, glaciologists and meteorologists.
Mr Vijay Kranti, through his pictorial presentation on Tibet, underlined that the massive population transfer in Tibet leads to the ecological disturbances inside Tibet.

Mr Tenzin Norbu stressed on damming and melting of the permafrost in Tibet, and global warming. He warned that, with the rise in the temperature of Tibet, the permafrost melts, which resulted in an irreversible damage to the Tibet’s ecosystem.

Friday, May 21, 2010


Asia Times Online on 2o May 2010 came up with a piece written by Saransh Sehgal, a local based contributor who compiled some of the notes from the chinese articles and the responses from the Tibetans in exile. I strongly feel the same way as Mr. Thubten Samphel, the spokesperson of Tibetan Government in Exile, who was quoted in Hindu newspaper that "China should be focusing on the larger and more pressing problems facing Tibet, rather than dwelling on such small issues."

The link fo the atimes article is

Thursday, May 6, 2010


Today, I read yet another column by a Chinese in China Tibet Information Center (CTIC), condemning His Holiness the Dalai Lama's remark of 'Son of India'. Last month, another article titled Dalai Lama insists on being 'son of India' was posted in the same website on April 07, 2010. Why CTIC repeatedly publish such distorted, illogical, and historical abusive articles? In their website, it mentioned that they are committed in publishing news and information about Tibet accurately. But can a Chinese government owned propaganda portal ever commit themselve of publishing accurate information. I bet it is purely understandable that CTIC will totally abide by the policy of CCP which will do anything to crush the forces challenging CCP. In that case, Since CCP criticized His Holiness the Dalai Lama as a Separatist and a Splittist, will CTIC ever be truthful to the core of issues published in their website. I believe that the objectivity of publishing such articles on a timely basis is to create confusion among the ignorant readers who are not aware of Tibet history.

Here are the links of articles written in the CTIC and a counterview by a Tibetan.

1) Dalai Lama insists on being 'son of India' April 07, 2010, CTIC

2) Analysing Chinese obsession over "son of India" February 2010,

3) Glimpse at Dalai's new defence for being son of India, May 05, 2010, CTIC

While reading a response from Dhondup, former colleague and a friend of mine, I think his note is sufficient enough to correct and clear the misunderstanding of the Chinese articles on this issue.

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Did Hu Jintao preach Buddhism in Tibet?

Tsering Tsomo

A popular columnist at Saipan Tribune believes so. (yes, it took the wind out of me!)

On February 25, Jaime R. Vergara, a columnist at the daily wrote a lengthy piece on the “peaceful harmonious” diplomacy of the Chinese president Hu Jintao in an article titled “The Diplomacy of Harmony” ( In it, he said Hu Jintao not only preached Buddhism in Tibet for three years but also “honed his skills at resolving conflict through peaceful means”.

Here’s an excerpt:

“Not being a member of the Shanghai ‘mafia’ of the Communist Party, Hu’s meteoric rise to leadership included stints in Guizhou (south of Sichuan, and north of Yunnan) and Xizang (Tibet) - the hinterlands, where he honed his skills at resolving conflict through peaceful means. In the ‘60s, Hu followed Buddhism, even preaching the Buddhist principle in Tibet for three years.”

Another misinformed intellectual is Shelley Hawks, a “China expert” and assistant professor of social science at College of General Studies in Boston University. In a February 22 interview ( with BU Today, Hawks said Hu Jintao received promotion for his “handling of student demonstrations in Tibet”. She did not mention that Hu as the party secretary in Tibet Autonomous Region was responsible for the year-long martial law in Tibet and the violent crackdowns on Tibetan demonstrations during 1988, 1989 and 1990. Many died from gunshots and many more were detained and tortured. How could she? She just transplanted Tiananmen Square from Beijing to Lhasa. The BU Today did not allow my comment on the article.

Sunday, April 18, 2010

China’s intellectuals and the quest for an independent identity

When we think of an intellectual, the first thought that normally comes to our heads is someone who is an anti-establishment, some one who is independent with his own vision and thoughts. Whether it is a writer, social scientist, poet or physicist, an intellectual is someone who thinks on his own, has his own integrity and independent vision. Most of the time, his vision comes in conflict with that of the establishment, of emperors and governments. Therefore, often establishment and intellectuals clash against each other, and the latter has to suffer the brunt of government machinery. History is full of anecdotes about writers, poets and novelists losing their lives or being exiled for their uncompromising stands on varied issues.

In short, an intellectual is an irritant, who doesn’t fit in anywhere, who questions all aspects of society, for he is full of doubts and skepticism. Whatever views he has, it is his own and not influenced by anyone. Every civilized and developed society has an independent space for the intellectuals; they have an independent identity whose work is to question and challenge the authorities with their alternative viewpoints. As governments tend to lie to hold onto power, it is the intellectuals who keep it under the scanner by scrutinizing its works and policies, making sure that they are constitutional and serve the larger interest of the society. For instance, in the United States we have people like Noam Chomsky who tirelessly scrutinize the policies of the American government, exposing the excesses committed by it, both domestically and internationally. Most of the time, views of intellectuals like Chomsky are at odds with those of the government, so much so that he is often referred to as ‘anti-American’ or ‘pro-communist.’

Such an independent space and identity is not available to the Chinese intellectuals. Since the Chinese civilization began, many philosophers, poets, writers, scholars have emerged, and they all have associated themselves with the state. They saw their roles as serving the state in making sure that it carries out its policies to serve the welfare of the Chinese people. They have never considered themselves as anti-state. They have always looked upon themselves as useful and honest servants of the state. Their duty is to make sure that the state or the emperor doesn’t violate the mandate of heaven. If they did so, the intellectuals had not shied away from reproaching them. At times many intellectuals lost their lives for criticizing the government. But, as mentioned earlier, the Chinese intellectuals didn’t have an independent identity of their own. They always searched their identity within the state apparatus, serving as official-bureaucrats or advisors to the emperors.

This situation continued and became worse when Mao’s communist revolution triumphed and the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949. As early as in the late 1930s, Mao outlined clearly CCP’s polices towards the intellectuals, of what kind of roles should they play in the newly established communist society. He said that the role of poets, writers, novelists and scholars was to serve the Chinese communist revolution, which basically meant that intellectuals could not have an independent existence of their own. All forms of art that expressed a modicum of independent thoughts were suppressed as bourgeois counter-revolutionary tendencies. Intellectuals especially had a terrible time during the so-called Great Leap Forward Movement and the Cultural Revolution. Many of them were brutally tortured and killed for expressing their conscience. As a result, Chinese intellectuals were completely alienated from their state and government. They began to have doubts about communism (which they wholeheartedly supported in the initial period of liberation), as can be gauged by the fact that some intellectuals believed alienation to have been existed in communism as well. The state of intellectuals during the Cultural Revolution can best be described by the “three belief crises” that circulated among them: crisis of belief in Marxism; crisis in faith in socialism; and crisis in trust of the Communist party.

After the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping came to power and tried to restore the bond between the state and intellectuals broken during Mao’s rule. Deng Xiaoping rehabilitated many of the intellectuals who were either imprisoned or sent to forced labor during the Cultural Revolution. A relative freedom ushered in for the intellectuals, and they tried to experiment themselves with varied western thoughts. Western artistic movements and philosophies became fashionable among the Chinese intellectuals. They read a wide range of western philosophers such as Nietzsche, Satre and Sigmund Freud etc. Search for roots also began among the intellectuals, as they felt China’s backwardness perhaps might lie in its own history and culture. Deng Xiaoping’s Four Modernization theory signaled that reform and opening up would continue. During this period, intellectuals still associated themselves with the state, searching their roles and identity within it. They were, in other words, establishment intellectuals or state builders. It was only Wei Jiesheng who was an out and out dismantler of the state with his calls for Fifth modernization: western style democracy. But he was the lone campaigner and didn’t have support from other intellectuals. As a result he had to suffer in prison for decades. But all the literary engagements carried out during this period were suppressed by the Deng regime as an impending threat to the CCP rule. As a result, intellectuals started to have doubts about the feasibility of repairing the state.

The complete break of bond between intellectuals and the State began during the late 1980s. The immediate cause was the sudden purge of Hu Yaobong who was the liberal face of the CCP and some of the intellectuals associated with the state, and whose goals were to repair and reform it. Their dismissals came at a time when China was facing severe crisis of corruption and maladministration, which made the situation worse. The intellectuals finally started questioning about whether progress can be made by serving within the state. For the first time they felt the root of the problem lies with the state/party itself, and that real progress and freedom for China is possible only by dismantling the current regime and replacing it with a new one. The two prominent intellectuals who represented this view are the astro-physicist Fang Lizhi and the radical intellectual Liu Xiaobo. They advocated that only a western style free democracy would usher in real freedom and democracy in China.

Then came the Tiananmen student protests of 1989 against government corruption and demand for greater freedom and democracy. Slogans during Tiannamen Demonstration in 1989 were ‘we love our country, but we hate our government,’ a clear demarcation between the country and government/party. As Merle Goldman, Perry Link, and Su Wei said, it ‘reveals the radical change in outlook of China’s student and intellectual community since the end of Cultural Revolution... and that patriotism had come to be defined as loyalty’s to one’s society and country, as distinguished from loyalty to party-state and its leadership.” For the first time in Chinese history, intellectuals from various backgrounds participated in that protest, which was brutally massacred by the Chinese Communist Party.

The massacre of peaceful protests proved beyond doubt for Chinese intellectuals that real reforms and democracy for China is not possible as long as the Chinese Communist Party is in power. It became clear to them that only by dismantling the current state ruled by the CCP, could China achieve its dream of freedom and liberty. Since the protests, many scholars, poets, and intellectuals who were repairers of the state have changed their position and moved to the sides of dismantlers of state like Fang Lizhi and Liu Xiaobo. For the first time in Chinese history, intellectuals are speaking from their own independent viewpoints, and are thus creating an independent space for themselves, challenging the dominant ideology of the state and party apparatus.

Although Jiang Zemin strengthened the market reforms and embraced the capitalists as new members of the Communist Party, signaling that opening up and reform would stay forever, China is mired in official corruption and arbitrary rules, which can be resolved only by establishing an independent judiciary. As of now, intellectuals who are openly challenging the Communist Party by calling it to step down from power and initiate multi-party elections are slowly but surely increasing. For instance, in 2008 a group of more than 300 intellectuals, journalists, rural activists and artists publicly signed Charter 2008, calling for a free and democratic China where human rights, democracy and the rule of law shall be paramount. Most of these intellectuals, including the leading figure, Liu Xiaobo, have been imprisoned by the Chinese government.

Another important change that occurred is that intellectuals are also openly speaking against Chinese government’s misguided policies in the so-called minority regions, especially in Tibet. Some of them, Liu Xiaobo including, are even calling for the Chinese government to hold peaceful dialogs with the exiled Tibetan leader Dalai Lama to resolve the long-simmering issue of Tibet. For the first time in Chinese history, the intellectuals are calling for the rights of ‘minorities’ and questioning the Chinese government’s treatment in these ‘areas.’ It remains, however, to see when these intellectuals will realize and speak out the true colonial nature of China’s rule in ‘minority regions.’

Chinese intellectuals’ journey from being pro to anti-establishment has been long and troublesome. Their efforts to create an independent existence/identity for themselves seem to have yielded result finally. Although they are being harassed and denied free movement and expression, the intellectuals are strongly asserting themselves as free spokespersons of the society, as indicated by the signing of the Charter 08. It remains to be seen how far their influence will reach within the mainstream Chinese society, so that a real mass-based challenge could be mounted against the ruling Communist party, eventually leading to the establishment of multi-party democracy in China.


Tenzin Lekshay

In 2008, Sichuan quake caused 69,181 known deaths, 18,498 people are listed as missing, and 374,176 injured as reported by the Chinese state medias. The most affected was the collapse of schools which led to the death of thousands of children. If we look at the school casualties, In Mianyang City, seven schools collapsed, burying at least 1,700 people. At least 7,000 school buildings in Sichuan Province collapsed. Another 700 students were buried in a school in Hanwang. At least 600 students and staff died at Juyuan Elementary School. Up to 1,300 children and teachers died at Beichuan Middle School. It was a devastated earthquake, which crumpled Sichuan into dust and debris. Multiple of complaints were launched by the distressed local parents on the weak structures of school buildings which were collapsed, but the authorities stood off and remained silent. Later, Tan Zuoren, a Chinese activist who investigated the deaths of children in schools that collapsed in the Sichuan earthquake was jailed for five years for subversion. Many of his supporters felt that the authorities detained him because of his investigation on Sichuan quake.

This year, similar quake with the magnitude of 6.9 hits Kyegudo, Yushu Tibet Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province, which was traditionally Kham region of Tibet. It was initially reported that around 400 people died of quake but the death toll drastically jumped to around 1,400 within a week. On April 18, Xinhua News Agency reported 1,706 death, with 256 missing, and 12,128 injured, out of which 1,297 of them severely injured. But exiled Tibetans estimated that around 10,000 Tibetans feared dead.


Geologists are looking into the causes of the recent Quake and somehow considered that it was not linked to 2008 Sichuan quake. Dr David Rothery of Open University in Milton Keynes, UK says "It’s not the same fault, it’s a consequence of the same bit of global tectonics, which is the collision of India with Asia. That’s the only link I’d make". he also mentioned that the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake resulted from a thrust fault, which happens frequently in the region near the Himalayas where India and Asia collided long ago. But the recent quake was a strike-slip event, which happens when there is sideways movement along a fault line. That’s the type of event that caused the January earthquake in Haiti.

According to the United States Geological Survey, "In the region of the April 13 earthquake the Tibetan Plateau is extending and translating east-southeastward within a larger zone of generally north-south convergence. Based on the location, depth, and moment tensor of the event, the Qinghai Province earthquake likely reflects the interplay amongst these major tectonic forces, dominated in this location by southeastward translation. The eastward motion of Tibet with respect to Eurasia further north is accommodated in part by the large intra-continental Altyn Tagh and Kunlun strike-slip fault systems. Several large historic events in the Qinghai Province have occurred on the Kunlun fault, which runs west-east approximately 300 km to the north of the April 13 event."

Prof. Brahma Chellaney however linked the previous quake with the recent one by saying that, "China's manmade quakes: After 2008 quake caused by dam pressure on geological fault line, today's quake hits Yellow river origin, cracks dam." The Changu (or Thrangu in Tibetan) hydropower dam was reported to have damaged by the earthquake. There is an overwhelming fear in Yushu that the nearby dam situated in Pathang in Kyegudo could burst any time, which might result to a huge loss of lives.

Independent researchers have found out about existence of 14 dams (constructed or under construction) in the area. International Rivers, an agency based in California reported that China plans to build at least 81 large dams on the upper reaches of the Yangtze, the Mekong and the Salween rivers in Qinghai Province and Tibetan Autonomous Region. Since Yushu County is located on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, it becomes a cradle for building dams.


Soon after quake hits Yushu, chaotic atmosphere ran high among the public without proper facilities to help rescue people from the debris of earthquake remnants. Many buildings were collapsed, schools were toppled, power supplies cut off, and roads were blocked. Remoteness of area, high altitude and sub minus degree temperature added difficulties in the rescue operation.

Thousands of People’s Liberation Armies (PLA) were deployed in the affected areas but were mostly concentrated in the main town, leaving far away remote areas without any significant help. Even in the town, the rescuers were seen manually using spade and hands, digging the debris without proper machineries. However, the swift rescue operations were carried out instantly which deserves appreciation. But, one may wonder a presence of thousands of uniformed PLAs in the rescue operation. Since Yushu is predominantly a Tibetan populated area, due to the brobdingnagian nature of 2008 demonstrations inside Tibet, large military convoy were deployed in an attempt to crush the demonstrations to maintain stability in the region. Yushu is also known to be close to Tibet Autonomous Region, that helps the Chinese authorities to swiftly deploy the armies whenever TAR is in need of army, whether to control the instability, or in safeguarding the borders.

Aftermath 2008 Sichuan earthquake, Chinese leaders learnt a lesson on how to handle disastrous calamities. Premier Wen Jaibao visited Yushu to inspect and to console the bereaved family members. He assured of any necessary helps from the authorities. Chinese top brass leader, Hu Jintao shortened his scheduled visit to Brazil for the BRIC summit because of the earthquake and later visited the affected area. His Holiness the Dalai Lama applaud the Chinese authorities, monastic institutions and individuals who came forward to help with the relief work. Hu Jintao during his scripted trip to Yushu, inspected the situation and categorically emphasized on four priorities; rescue efforts, providing basic necessity (food, clothes and shelters), speeding up infrastructural construction, and the resumption of schools.


There are three things which needs to observe carefully about Yushu Earthquake. First, like Sichuan Earthquake, many schools in Yushu collapsed due to the defective constructions of school buildings. Since many of the hinterland, like TAR, Qinghai and Sichuan are politically under a strict vigilance of Central Government. But on the infrastructural level, CCP is comparatively less bothered due to a prevalence of rampant corruptions and a culture of nepotism. Individuals contractors with a high level network constructed sub standard buildings by earning a hefty amount of money, which were never been scrutinized by the government. Collapse of schools in Sichuan was a clear example of Government hiding the facts from public eyes. Mohan Guruswamy in my facebook commented, "I am sure that, like in Sichuan earlier, most of the deaths would have been caused by poor construction by well connected contractors. But then this will be a state secret."

Secondly, the Chinese state media reported that the magnitude of the recent earthquake was 7.1, but the United States Geological Survey pointed with 6.9 magnitude. USGS considered Yushu earthquake as one of the largest known historic earthquakes within several hundred kilometers of its location. But Kevin McCue, director of the Australian Seismological Centre, said: "It doesn't qualify as a major earthquake even though the result may be a major disaster." Chinese government made some revisions on the earthquake parameters but still sticks to 7.1 magnitude. So, the debate of whether this earthquake is prominent or not is a matter of how the Chinese government percieve it. With the dubious recording of high 7.1 magnitude, what will the Chinese government get and gain? Is it purposefully done to generate more international relief funds and donations, or does it means to get more International sympathy and consolations? Else, the geological department of China is apparently not qaulified enough to scientifically monitor the earthquake.

Thirdly, the underestimation of death tolls by the Chinese government is something which China often does in the past. But in this case, it may be due to the fear of an eruption of social instability and political trauma in the region where majority of the inhabitants are Tibetan. As of 18 April, the Chinese state media reported about 1,706 dead but the exiled community reported an overwhelming record of 10,000 dead tolls.


People of Yushu recently wrote an appeal to the Chinese leaders to invite His Holiness the Dalai Lama to visit the areas to bless and summon prayers for the deceased Tibetans. Majority of the Qinghai people belongs to Tibetan buddhist who are deeply religious. They have profound faith in His Holiness the Dalai Lama and considered him as their spiritual master. His Holiness too wishes to visit Yushu to give solace to the bereaved Tibetans who were severely affected by the recent earthquake. However, the question is whether the Chinese government seriously take this into consideration, taking the position of His Holiness the Dalai Lama as a Splittist (Chinese mentality). If the Chinese government sincerely wishes to help the people of Yushu, the invitation sends a strong signal to the International community that China has a will to invite His Holiness the Dalai Lama, which is very positive. But it is unlikely to happen as China always fear that his presence will steal the limelight of Chinese government's role in Tibet. Some hinted that efforts of Chinese rescue work is to win the hearts of Tibetan people. Prof. Robbie Barnett of Columbia University says, "I think the Chinese already are looking at the larger implications of this earthquake. they see it as an opportunity for the Communist Party to win sympathy through its generosity".

Photo credits:
1) Injured Tibetan girl by Reuters
2) Map of Hydropower project by

Tuesday, April 6, 2010


Tenzin Lekshay

An investigative report titled 'Shadows in the Cloud: Investigating Cyber Espionage 2 was released today jointly by Canadian based Information Warfare Monitor and Shadowserver Foundation. This 58 pages report categorically mentioned Chinese intrusions into the systems of Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Government in Exile, Tibetan organizations and support groups worldwide.

The report is available in

Here are summary of main findings of the report.

Complex cyber espionage network - Documented evidence of a cyber espionage network that compromised government, business, and academic computer systems in India, the Office of the Dalai Lama, and the United Nations. Numerous other institutions, including the Embassy of Pakistan in the United States, were also compromised. Some of these institutions can be positively identified, while others cannot.

Theft of classified and sensitive documents - Recovery and analysis of exfiltrated data, including one document that appears to be encrypted diplomatic correspondence, two documents marked “SECRET”, six as “RESTRICTED”, and five as “CONFIDENTIAL”. These documents are identified as belonging to the Indian government. However, we do not have direct evidence that they were stolen from Indian government computers and they may have been compromised as a result of being copied onto personal computers. The recovered documents also include 1,500 letters sent from the Dalai Lama’s office between January and November 2009. The profile of documents recovered suggests that the attackers targeted specific systems and profiles of users.

Evidence of collateral compromise - A portion of the recovered data included visa applications submitted to Indian diplomatic missions in Afghanistan. This data was voluntarily provided to the Indian missions by nationals of 13 countries as part of the regular visa application process. In a context like Afghanistan, this finding points to the complex nature of the information security challenge where risks to individuals (or operational security) can occur as a result of a data compromise on secure systems operated by trusted partners.

Command-and-control infrastructure that leverages cloud-based social media services - Documentation of a complex and tiered command and control infrastructure, designed to maintain persistence. The infrastructure made use of freely available social media systems that include Twitter, Google Groups, Blogspot, Baidu Blogs, and Yahoo! Mail. This top layer directed compromised computers to accounts on free web hosting services, and as the free hosting servers were disabled, to a stable core of command and control servers located in the PRC.

Links to Chinese hacking community - Evidence of links between the Shadow network and two individuals living in Chengdu, PRC to the underground hacking community in the PRC.

At present, China has 384 million internet users under the watchful eyes of cyber police. Tens of thousands of Internet police, undercover and volunteer security guards were installed to monitor the internet after the cyber revolution hit China. In 2007, BBC reported that virtual officers were sent to patrol the internet and even the internet users can report illegal activities on the Beijing's Municipal Security Bureau's Internet Surveillance Centre. These cyber police not only act as patroling unit but also as a monitoring agent to intrude inside the personal informations of internet users.

During the 19th penal session of the 9th Standing Committe of the National People's Congress (NPC) of People's Republic of China (PRC) in 28 December 2000, decisions on Internet security was adopted whereby the Article 1 clearly mentioned invading computer information system, producing and spreading viruses, and interrupting normal network operation shall be considered as commiting crimes. But the Chinese government themselves are vigorously and secretly engaged in state cyber crimes by intruding into the systems of pro democratic activists and other vurnerable elements, and thus imprisoned them regularly.

In March 2010, Reporters Without Borders issued its latest list of Enemies of the Internet. China remains on the top with 72 of cyber dessidents including Tibetans languishing in prisons who were mostly charged with "divulging state secrets abroad."

In February 2010, with the mounting international pressures, China's Hubei Police seized the country's biggest hacker training website 'The Black Hawk Safety Net', established in 2005 and headquartered in Xuchang of the central Henan Province, which had more than 12,000 VIP members. Many more are still working undercovered within the paradigms of PRC which are literally protected and synchronized under the command of Chinese Communist leaders.

Over the years, China is notorously accused of hacking many governmental websites of countries around the globe which China still denies. Websites of prominent institutions, multinational companies and organizations are also not spared by the Chinese hackers.

Google's attempt of withdrawal from China in the recent past was not only about the issues of censorship within the terms of Chinese Communist Government in filtering Dalai Lama, Falun Gong and Tiananmen Square massacre, but more so with the infilteration of Chinese hackers into the Google network. The case of Tenzin Seldon's google mailing services in January 2010 was a clear example of Chinese high handedness of third party intrusion.

This current report of highlighting Chinese Cyber espionage is widely circulated and India significantly became a victim of Chinese menace, which was pressumebly targeted at India's defence shield.

Soon after the report came out, Prof. Brahma Chellaney instantly made his classic remark by saying, "While the Indian government sleeps, foreigners uncover China-based cyber spy ring that has stealing classified and restricted documents from the highest levels of the Indian Defense Ministry."

Strangely as usual, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswomen Jiang Yu denied the accusation by refering to the Report as "I don't know what evidence these people have, or what their motives are". She added that "Our policy is very clear. We resolutely oppose all internet crime, including hacking."


1) Shadows in the Cloud: Investigating Cyber Espionage 2, by Information Warfare Monitor and Shadowserver Foundation, 06 April 2010

2) The Current Situation of Cybercrimes in China by Zhang Jianwen

Lecturer National Prosecutors College, Beijing, China, November - December 2006

Monday, April 5, 2010

Issue of Tibet: A post modern perspective!

Tenzin Nyinjey

There was a time when reality was considered absolute, not just in physical sciences but even in social sciences as well. The evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin in natural sciences, and that of Karl Marx in sociology in the way societies develop in linear fashion from stages of primitive, to feudal, to capitalist, to socialist and finally to communist states are the two prime examples. Such a predominant and single conception of an ultimate reality created its own share of human tragedies on our earth, as is evidenced by the massive destruction of World Wars I and II and more so in its aftermath in so-called communist states.

Then came Albert Einstein, who changed the dynamics of scientific reality - the way we look at and perceive it with his theory of relativity. According to him, even physical reality can be multiple depending on the observer’s physical context.

Einstein’s conclusion about reality is similar to the one propounded by post-modernist writers in literature and the arts. According to them there is no fixed reality, but multiple realities depending upon each individual’s perspective, and all these realities are valid and it can’t be scientifically proved that one conception of reality is better or worse than that of others.

This concept of multiple realities, all of which are valid, is extremely relevant in the kind of society we live in. Ours is a democratic society with different religious, cultural, social and political views. One group of people embraces a reality of interests, which is different from and at times contradictory to that of another group.

Such a post-modernist approach is also helpful in our efforts to resolve the issue of Tibet’s status. As we all know, Tibet is currently under the military occupation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and among the exile Tibetans there are basically two theories or realities in resolving the issue. The grand theory, as propounded by His Holiness the Dalai Lama and majority of exile Tibetans, is that Tibet must seek autonomy within the constitutional framework of the PRC. The other competent theory, as advocated by some of the intellectuals and young Tibetan exiles, is that Tibet should strive for independence. Both the proponents of these theories appear to be in conflict against each other, thinking as if one has the best solution/reality in solving Tibet’s issue. In other words, both sides reflect the classical view that reality is one, rather than the post modernist or Einsteinian view that realities could be different depending upon the observer’s physical context and that all these different perspectives of realities are valid scientifically.

In addition to this post-modernist perspective, we can add another strategy of what political scientists refer to as ‘cognitive dissonance’. And this cognitive dissonance can be added by bringing up another perspective, which is Tibet’s status quo. Indeed there are some Tibetans, both in and outside of Tibet, who are benefitting from the status quo.

Such a notion can be helpful, for at least, it will help the two seemingly conflicting sides to live in harmony and engage in lively debates rather than always ending up in acrimony whenever they meet and engage in conversation over the question of Tibet’s future status.

Furthermore, a single point perspective or reality concerning the ‘best’ solution regarding Tibet’s struggle, be it independence or autonomy, is reassuring, but it obstructs further discussion, debates and thinking, where as multiple perspectives of reality (independence, autonomy, status quo) will always leave room for us to have creative debates, perhaps resulting in a new and fresh perspective on Tibet!